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Ruthgar is described as the most influential, civilized, and economically prosperous of the Seven Satrapies. The land is described geographically as plains.
Ruthgar has a long-standing rivalry over wealth and power with its neighbour-Satrapy Paria, a rivalry that Ruthgar appears to be winning due to it being the current wealthiest and most important Satrapy. Ruthgar and Paria both claim to have been the birthplace of Lucidonius.
For over 100 years, Ruthgar shared an alliance with the Blood Forest, and many of both Satrapy's noble families frequently married their children to children of the other's noble families. This resulted in most of the current nobles in Ruthgar having some Blood Forester heritage, and vice-versa. This alliance came to an end approximately a generation before the events of the series, with Vician's Sin, which started and long and bloody war between the two Satrapies, leading to the area where the two share a border to be dubbed the "Blood Plains."
At some point during the reign of Prism Gavin Guile (i.e. after the end of the the War Of The Prisms,) Ruthgar and the Blood Forest went to war again, which is implied to not have been the first time. Gavin intervened and managed to forge a peace between the two Satrapies once again.
Elephants live in some parts of Ruthgar.
People of Ruthgari descent are known to commonly have straight, dark hair, either brown or black, olive skin (that varies in shades from deep tan to pale-but-not-as-pale-as-the-skin-of-a-Blood-Forester,) small noses, thin lips, and green or brown eyes. A rare and prized trait found in Ruthgari is blonde hair, which Liv Danavis described as "vanishing rare," most likely due to it being a recessive trait to darker hair.
A traditional piece of clothing from Ruthgar is the petasos, a broad-brimmed hat made of straw.
According to legend, Ruthgar is the ancient center of Green drafting.